There is a growing body of research supporting the operation of human mirroring systems. The proposed action mirror neuron system (a-MNS) instantly recognizes meaningful behavior in others and fires as it does when the observer does it herself.

Humans also have an emotional mirroring neural system (e-MNS) which codes experienced, observed, or imagined affective behaviors: body language, expression, pain, fear

Often described as a disorder of fear, PTSD is also a disorder of emotional and social cognition, comfort, and competence. It involves disturbed interoceptive and interpersonal perceptions, and reflexive reactions to anticipated threat based on extremely subtle cues – elements which may invoke the MNS

Poster presented at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem Institute for Advanced Studies’ October 2009 conference “Future Directions in PTSD”

For information, email or write :

For information, email or write :

Pamela Willson PhD
P.O. Box 6605
Scottsdale AZ 85261

Poster may be reproduced as posted if credited as follows:
“Used by permission of Pamela Willson, PhD. © Pamela Willson 2009”

In order of visual quality:
JPG for screen display (353kb)
PDF for screen display (2.03Mb)
Poster for print display (22.7Mb)